(pbuh) DID NOT DIE
Jesus (Pbuh) In The Hadith
facts that Jesus (pbuh) is alive in God's presence and that he will
return to Earth in the End Times appears in some detail in the hadith
collections, among them al-Shaybani's Taysir al-Usul ila Jami'
al-Usul; Imam Maliki's Al-Muwatta'; the Sahihs of Ibn Khuzayma
and Ibn Hibban; and the Musnads of Ibn Hanbal and al-Tayalisi, regarded
as the greatest sources of the most reliable hadith. Furthermore,
many Islamic scholars have carried out research and studies on these
facts and have written books and treatises on them. These are also
Heading the list of these great Islamic scholars
is Abu Hanifa, the founder of the Hanafi legal school. Some of the
other Islamic scholars who hold these views are listed below:
- - Imam Abu Mansur Muhammad al-Maturidi, who, while studying the hadith regarding Jesus (pbuh), stated that Jesus (pbuh) would return to Earth and make the Antichrist ineffective.80
- Al-Ajuri, regarded as one
of the first experts on the Qur'an, stated that Jesus (pbuh) will
return to Earth in the End Times, for which reason the report
must be believed.81
- Ibn Hazm stated that the report
that Jesus (pbuh) would return is reliable.82
- Al-Pazdavi drew attention
to the fact that reports of Jesus' (pbuh) second coming are openly
revealed in many verses and hadith.83
- An-Nasafi stated that this
event was one of the major signs of the Day of Judgment.84
- Saduddin al-Taftazani stated
that the hadith about this event are completely trustworthy.85
- Ibn al-'Arabi reported that
even though more than a thousand years has passed since Jesus'
(pbuh) birth, he is alive in body and soul in God's presence.86
- Al-Qurtubi wrote that he believes
in the second coming of Jesus (pbuh) and indicated many trustworthy
hadith to back up this belief.87
- Imam Rabbani wrote: "Jesus
(pbuh) will descend from the sky and will be a member of Prophet
Muhammad's (may God bless him and grant him peace) community.
In other words, he will be one of his people and will abide by
the Divine law."88
- Imam Abu Ja'far al-Tahawi,
regarded as one of the most important Egyptian Hanafi scholars
of his time, opined that the return of Jesus (pbuh) is a major
sign of the End Times and stated the need to believe in this truth.89
- 'Ali al-Qari said that Jesus' (pbuh) second coming is a sign of the Day of Judgment and that when he returns, he will make the Antichrist ineffective. According to al-Qari, belief in this report is obligatory, for the subject is fixed by a number of reports from the Prophet (may God bless him and grant him peace) and his followers.90
- - In his book Maqalat al-Islamiyyin wa Ikhtilfa' al-Musallin (The Discourses of the Proponents of Islam and the Differences among the Worshippers), Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari said: "It is a requirement to believe in these elements on which the people of the hadith and the people of the Sunnah are agreed: in God, angels, the books, the prophets, the revelations received from God, and in the words of the Prophet (may God bless him and grant him peace) that the Antichrist will appear and that Jesus (pbuh) will make him ineffective.""91
- Al-Bayadi draws attention
to the fact that the second coming is one of the signs that the
Day of Judgment is approaching, and that reliable hadith fully
support this information.92
- Al-Suyuti reported that Jesus
(pbuh) will come and rule with the law of Prophet Muhammad (may
God bless him and grant him peace).93
- Al-Alusi said that when Jesus
(pbuh) returns, he will rule with the law of Prophet Muhammad
(may God bless him and grant him peace) and the Muslims will be
- Abu Munteha, an Islamic scholar
from the Ottoman period, said it was right to believe in the return
of Jesus (pbuh).95
- Al-Shinqiti, a modern commentator,
wrote: "Both the Qur'an and the generally accepted Sunnah are
proofs that Jesus (pbuh) is at this moment alive, that he will
descend in the End Times, and that his coming is regarded as one
of the signs of the Day of Judgment."96
O People of the Book! Do not go to excess in your religion.
Say nothing but the truth about God. The Messiah, ‘Jesus
son of Mary, was only the messenger of God and His Word,
which He cast into Mary, and a Spirit from Him. So believe
in God and His messengers. Do not say, ‘Three.'
It is better that you stop. God is only One God. He is too
Glorious to have a son! Everything in the heavens and in
the Earth belongs to Him. God suffices as a Guardian. (Qur'an,
Taken all together, these and many other hadith
clearly show the full agreement among all Islamic scholars that
Jesus (pbuh) will come again. For example, in his Lawami, Muhammad
ibn Ahmad al-Saffarini states that Islamic scholars are in agreement
on the issue:
The community of the faithful
agrees that Jesus (pbuh), the son of Mary, will return. No member
of the people of the Divine law has opposed this element.97
In his commentary, Ruh al-Ma'ani
fi Tafsir al-Qur'an, the great Islamic scholar Sayyid al-Alusi
cited examples of the views of other Islamic scholars and said
that the community is agreed on the return of Jesus (pbuh), and
that these statements were so well known as to attain the level
of consensus. He also stated that belief in the coming of Jesus
(pbuh) was obligatory.98
The Hadith on Jesus (pbuh) Are "Tawatur"
The hadith relating Jesus' (pbuh) second coming
are tawatur, a specialized term defined as "a tradition that has
been handed down by a number of different channels of transmitters
or authorities, hence supposedly ruling out the possibility of its
having been forged."99 Generally reliable hadith are those which
are reported by so many hadith experts that there is no room left
for error. The Islamic scholar Sayyid al-Jurjani expounded on this
concept as follows:
Generally reliable reports
are those that attain such a level [of agreement] among the majority
of narrators that, according to custom, it is [considered] impossible
for so many reporters to agree on a falsehood. In that event,
if the report's words and meaning are consistent, then this is
known as the "reliability of the word." If there is agreement
among all of them in both sense and meaning, but a conflict in
words, then this is known as "conceptual reliability."100
In his Al-Tasrih fi ma Tawatara fi Nuzul al-Masih,
the great hadith scholar Muhammad Anwar Shah Kashmiri wrote that
the hadith about Jesus' (pbuh) second coming are all reliable, and
quotes 75 hadith and 25 works by the Prophet's (may God bless him
and grant him peace) Companions and their disciples (Tabi'un).
The following explanation appears in 'Awn al-Ma`bud,
one of the important texts in Sunan Abu Dawud:
The hadith reported from the
Prophet (may God bless him and grant him peace) that Jesus (pbuh)
will return from the sky in body and soul are trustworthy. This
is the doctrine of the people of the Sunnah.101
Imam Muhammad Zahid al-Kawthari stated that the
hadith about Jesus' (pbuh) descent are trustworthy:
The hadith regarding Jesus'
(pbuh) descent are "conceptually reliable." Each sound and beautiful
hadith indicates a different meaning, yet all agree that Jesus
(pbuh) will return. Nobody who has scented the odor of the
knowledge contained within the hadith can possibly deny this truth.
The hadith dealing with the appearance of the Mahdi and the Antichrist,
as well as with the second coming, have achieved such a high degree
of trustworthiness that their truth is beyond all doubt. The
fact that some scholastic theologians deem it obligatory to believe
in hadith about the signs of the Day of Judgment, while they still
have doubts as to whether a part of these hadith are reliable
or not, stems from their insufficient knowledge of the hadith.102
We saw earlier that the great Islamic scholar Imam
al-Suyuti stated that Jesus (pbuh) is alive in God's presence and
will return in the End Times, at which time religious moral values
will prevail over Earth. In his book Al-Hawi li al-Fatawa
and the collection Nuzul 'Isa ibn Maryam Akhir al-Zaman,
he considered all of the relevant hadith, after which he stated
that these were trustworthy:
It cannot remain concealed
from those who have studied the hadith at great length that all
of the relevant hadith have achieved the level of trustworthiness.
Therefore, just as the hadith about the awaited Mahdi are trustworthy
and those concerning the Antichrist have attained the level of
trustworthiness, the hadith about the coming of Jesus (pbuh) are
After analyzing and explaining these hadith, the
scholar Ibn Kathir outlined his thoughts:
The prophetic hadith reliably
report when and where Jesus (pbuh) will return . The reliable
and trustworthy hadith about when Jesus (pbuh) will return to
Earth in his physical body cannot be interpreted in any other
manner. Therefore, everyone who has the slightest faith and conscience
must believe that Jesus (pbuh) will return to Earth.104
Furthermore, many great Islamic commentators and
scholars share the view that the hadith dealing with Jesus (pbuh)
being alive in God's presence and his return, as well as those dealing
with the Antichrist and the Mahdi, are trustworthy. Among them are
Ibn 'Atiyya, author of Al-Bahr al-Muhit; Imam al-Hafiz
ibn Hajar, author of Fath al-Bari; Imam Ibn Rushd, author
of Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari; Sheikh al-Ghumari, author of
'Aqidat Ahl al-Islam fi Nuzul 'Isa 'alayhi al-Salam; and
Ja'far al-Kattani, author of Nazm al-Mutanathir fi al-Hadith
Accounts in the Hadith about Jesus (pbuh)
Our Prophet (may God bless him and grant him
peace) received news of the Unseen directly from God:
He [God] is the Knower of the
Unseen and does not divulge His secrets to anyone - except a messenger
with whom He is well pleased, and then He posts sentinels before
him and behind him. (Qur'an, 72:26-27)
Our Lord reveals that He sent knowledge to Prophet
Muhammad (may God bless him and grant him peace) in his dreams:
God has confirmed His messenger's
vision with truth: "You will enter the Sacred Mosque [Masjid al-Haram]
in safety, God willing, shaving your heads and cutting your hair
without any fear." He knew what you did not know and ordained,
in place of this, an imminent victory. (Qur'an, 48:27)
As can be seen, our Lord imparted pieces of concealed
knowledge to our Prophet (may God bless him and grant him peace)
in order to provide him and his Companions with His support and
help. Some of his Companions witnessed some of these concealed things.
They reported how he conveyed these concealed things to them. Sahih
al-Bukhari and Sahih Muslim, reported from 'Umar ibn
al-Khattab and Hudhayfa, and Imam Ahmad and Imam Muslim reported
from Ibn Zayd al-Ansari, that:
The Prophet (may
God bless him and grant him peace) . gave us news of all the past
and future events in this address, taught them to us, and had
us learn them by heart.105
Hudhayfa al-Yamani said:
I swear to God that the Prophet
(may God bless him and grant him peace) gave us news of the wickedness
that would come until the end of the world, as well as the names
of more than three hundred leaders who would produce that wickedness,
with their fathers' names and those of their tribes.106
You are the best nation ever to be produced before humanity.
You enjoin the right, forbid the wrong, and believe in God...(Qur'an,
A large part of our Prophet's (may God bless him
and grant him peace) reports about the future contains information
about the second coming. When these hadith about Jesus (pbuh) are
examined, we notice that despite their large numbers, all of them
agree with each other. When their information is examined, we see
that they all contain similar reports that Jesus (pbuh) will return
to Earth, rule the people with the Qur'an, fight and overcome the
Antichrist, cause true religious moral values to prevail on Earth,
and usher in an era of peace and abundance for the whole world.
Another noteworthy feature of these hadith is that they have been
reported by a large number of witnesses. Indeed, this is why they
are considered mutawatir, for so many people have reported them
that they cannot possibly be false. The number of witnesses relating
hadith regarding Jesus (pbuh) is greater than fifty. These include:
Anas Ibn Malik, Qatada, 'A'isha, Abu Hurayra, 'Imran
ibn Husayn, Nafi' ibn 'Utba, Abu Barza, Abu Dharr al-Ghifari, Qaysan,
'Uthman ibn al-'As, Jabir ibn 'Abdullah, Abu Umama, Ibn Mas'ud,
'Abdulla ibn Amr, Samura ibn Jundub, Nawwas ibn Sam'an, Abd al-Rahman
ibn 'Awf, Hudhayfa ibn al-Yamani, Abu al-Asas as-Sanani, Abu Umama
al Bahili, Abu al-Darda', Abu Rafi', Abu Sa'id al-Khudri, Al-Hakam
ibn 'Amr al-Ghifari, Rabi' ibn Anas, and 'Ammar ibn Yasir, may God
be pleased with all of them.
Statements from the Companions and the Later Generations
The Companions are very valuable believers who
attained the honors of being alongside and being taught by the Prophet
(may God bless him and grant him peace). Thus, their statements
regarding the verses about Jesus (pbuh) contain information of what
the Prophet (may God bless him and grant him peace) taught them
about this unique prophet. When we examine their statements about
the relevant verses, we notice that all of them believed that Jesus
(pbuh) was not dead and would return to Earth. Some of these statements
are as follows:
- Referring to Qur'an 3:46, Ibn Zayd said: "Jesus (pbuh) spoke to people while he was still in the cradle. When he makes the Antichrist ineffective, he will speak to people as an adult."107
-'Abdullah ibn 'Abbas said
about Qur'an 4:159: "This verse is proof that Jesus (pbuh), son
of Mary, will appear . All of the People of the Book will believe
in him before his death."108
-Muhammad ibn 'Ali Abi Talib
(also known as Ibn Hanafiyya), explained Qur'an 4:159 in these
terms: "He will descend before the Day of Judgment. All Jews and
Christians will believe in him."109
on the same verse, as follows: "When Jesus (pbuh) descends, all
religions will believe in him and he will bear witness for them
on the Day of Judgment."110 He stated about
Qur'an 43:61 thus: "The appearance of Jesus (pbuh) is an indication
of the Day of Judgment."111
- In explaining Qur'an 4:159, Abu Muhammad al-Madani said: "When Jesus (pbuh) descends to Earth, he will make the Antichrist ineffective, and no Jew who does not believe in him will be left on Earth."112
-Al-Hakam ibn 'Amr al-Ghifari
explained Qur'an 4:159 in the following words: "At the moment
when Jesus (pbuh) son of Mary descends, all of the People of the
Book will believe in him."113
al-Basri made the following comment: "I swear to God that Jesus
(pbuh) is at this moment alive in God's presence, and that everyone
will believe in him when he returns." With regard to Qur'an 4:159,
he said: "God raised Jesus (pbuh) to His presence. He will send
him before the Day of Judgment as a holder of rank. Good and bad,
all will believe in him."114 He also made a similar comment regarding
Qur'an 43:61, saying that the meaning of the verse was that Jesus
(pbuh) would return to Earth.115
-On the same subject, Ibn 'Abbas
said: "In Qur'an 43:61, God indicates that Jesus (pbuh) will appear
before the Day of Judgment."116
Islamic Scholars Regard the Coming of Jesus (pbuh) as an Article
Almost all the works that elucidate articles of faith among the People of the Sunnah agree that Jesus (pbuh) will return to Earth before the Day of Judgment, struggle and make the Antichrist ineffective, and cause true religious moral values to prevail on Earth. In their analysis of the proofs presented in the Qur'an and the hadith, Islamic scholars inform us that Jesus' (pbuh) second coming is an important article of faith. They explain the matter thus:
1. God has revealed that: "They did not kill
him and they did not crucify him, but it was made to seem so to
them" (Qur'an, 4:157). In addition, many other verses reveal
that Jesus (pbuh) is alive in God's presence and that he will
come again. Islamic scholars agree that it is impossible to maintain
any other position. For instance, Ibn Hazm emphasized that: "Anyone
who says that Jesus (pbuh) was killed will either be someone who
leaves the just religion or an unbeliever."117
2. The fact that the hadith on this subject are
completely tawatur (trustworthy) and so clear is important
evidence for Muslims. Furthermore, there is no hadith that asserts
that Jesus (pbuh) will not return.
3. The hadith reported by Jabir ibn 'Abdullah:
"He who denies the appearance of the Mahdi is inevitably blaspheming
against what was revealed to the Prophet (may God bless him and
grant him peace). He who denies the appearance of Jesus (pbuh),
the son of Mary, has become an unbeliever. Someone who denies
that the Antichrist will appear is also inevitably an unbeliever,"
is another important piece of evidence. This hadith appears in
such important Islamic sources as Sheikh Muhammad Parisa's Fusul-i
Sitta, Ibn Ishaq's Kitab al-Ta`aruf li Madhhab Ahl al-Tasawwuf,
Imam Suhayli's al-Rawd al-Unuf, and Imam Suyuti's Alamat
al-Mahdi. Moreover, Abu Bakr explained the hadith in these
terms: "It was revealed to us from Muhammad ibn Hasan, to him
from Abu 'Abdullah al-Husayn ibn Muhammad, to him from Ibn Uways,
to him from Malik ibn Abas, to him from Muhammad ibn Munkadir,
and to him from Ibn Jabir."118
4. Another factor is the number and reliability
of the hadith narrators regarding the second coming. Among these
people are Abu al-Asas al-Sanani, Abu Rafi', Abu al-Aliya, Abu
Umama al Bahili, Abu al-Darda', Abu Hurayra, Abu Malik al-Khudri,
Jabir ibn 'Abdullah, Hudhayfa ibn Adis, Safina, Qatada, 'Uthman
ibn al-'As, Nafi' ibn Kaysani, Al Walid ibn Muslim, 'Ammar ibn
Yathir, and 'Abdullah ibn 'Abbas, may God be pleased with all
Given this, Islamic scholars regard belief in Jesus'
(pbuh) second coming and his causing true religious moral values
to prevail as major articles of faith.
The information considered thus far shows that
the relevant hadith are sahih (reliable) and mutawatur
(trustworthy). The information that they contain, as well as the
accounts narrated by the Companions and analyses of Islamic scholars,
leave no doubt that Jesus (pbuh) will return to Earth. By God's
will, this great miracle will occur and all people will, as a direct
result, experience a most miraculous and beautiful period. (God
80. Maturidi, Te'vilatü'l
Kuran, vr. 239; Sami Baybal, İbrahimi Dinlerde Mesih'in Dönüşü,
Yediveren Kitap, July 2002, s. 238-240
81. Accuri, eş-Şeria, s. 380-382;Sami Baybal, İbrahimi Dinlerde
Mesih'in Dönüşü, Yediveren Kitap, July 2002, s. 238-240
82. İbn Hazm, İlmü'l Kelam, s. 30-32; Sami Baybal, İbrahimi Dinlerde
Mesih'in Dönüşü, Yediveren Kitap, July 2002, s. 238-240
83. Al-Pazdavi, Ehl-i Sunnet Akaidi (The Doctrine of the People
of the Sunnah), trans. by Serafettin Golcuk (Istanbul: 1998), 352;
Baybal, Ibrahimi Dinlerde, 238-40.
84. An-Nasafi, Aqaid (Istanbul: 1310/1892), 193-94; Baybal, Ibrahimi
85. Saduddin Taftazani, al-Aqaid al-Nasafiyya (Istanbul: 1310/1892),
193-4; Baybal, Ibrahimi Dinlerde, 238-40.
86. Ibn al-‘Arabi, Fusus al-Hikam (Istanbul: 1287), 63; Baybal,
Ibrahimi Dinlerde, 238-40.
87. Al-Qurtubi, Mukhtasar Tazkirah Qurtubi, trans. byAhmad Hijazi
al-Shaqqa, (Beirut: 1986), 2:402-14.
88. Imam Rabbani, Letters of Rabbani (Istanbul: 1977), 1:436, 545,
722, 820, 846.
89. Baybal, Ibrahimi Dinlerde, 238-40.
91. Abu al-Hasan al-Ash‘ari, Maqalat al-Islamiyyin wa Ikhtilfa
92. Al-Bayadi, Isharat al-Maram min ‘Ibarat al-Imam, 67.
93. Al-Suyuti, Nuzul ‘Isa ibn Maryam Akhir al-Zaman (Suleymaniye
Library), no. 1446/9.
94. Baybal, Ibrahimi Dinlerde, 238-40.
96. Al-Shinqiti, Adwa' Al Bayan fi Idah Al Qur'an bi
Al Qur'an, 7:273; Baybal, Ibrahimi Dinlerde, 238-40.
97. Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Saffarini, Lawami, 2:94-95.
98. Al-Alusi, Ruh al-Ma‘ani, 7:60.
99. Ruqaiyyah Waris Maqsood, A Basic Dictionary of Islam (New Delhi:
Goodword Books, 2000), 153.
100. Al-Sayyid al-Sharif, Zafar al-Amani fi Sharh Mukhtasar al-Sayyid
al-Sharif al-Jurjani fi Mustalah al-Hadith, 46
101. Sunan Abu Dawud, ‘Awn al-Ma‘bud, 163.
102. Al-Kawthari, Nazra ‘Abira fi Maza‘im, 44.
103. Al-Suyuti, Al-Hawi li al-Fatawa, 2:277.
104. Ibn Kathir, Tafsir Ibn Kathir, 1:578-82.
105. Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim hadiths.
106. Sunan Abu Dawud.
107. Al-Tabari, Jami‘ al-Bayan, 3:188.
108. Al-Hakim, Al-Mustadrak, 2:309.
109. Al-Suyuti, Durr al-Manthur, 2 :241.
110. Al-Tabari, Jami‘ al-Bayan, 6:19.
111. Al-Suyuti, Durr al-Manthur, 2 :20.
112. Al-Tabari, Jami‘ al-Bayan, 6:19.
113. Ibid., 6:19.
114. Al-Suyuti, Durr al-Manthur, 2 :284.
115. Ibid., 2 :20.
116. Khasmiri, al-Tasrih, 289-90.
117. Ibn Hazm, ‘Ilm al-Qalam, 56-57.
118. Al-Suyuti, Al-Hawi li al-Fatawa, 2:161.