THE PROPHET SOLOMON (pbuh)

 

CONCLUSION

Throughout this book, we have spoken of the incomparable blessings that God gave to Prophet Solomon (pbuh) and of the superior knowledge that He never gave to anyone before. Everyone who has read it carefully will have found in Prophet Solomon's (pbuh) life story some sound advice and interesting signs that are relevant to the present day.

Prophet Solomon (pbuh) was an ideal statesman, and every Muslim should take him as an example in the areas of justice, modesty, sincerity, intelligence, prudence, patience, and decisiveness. Everyone who follows his example will meet with success both in this world and the next.

As we said earlier, Dhu'l Qarnayn (pbuh), just like Prophet Solomon (pbuh), had great power and dominion. God gave him "power and authority in the land and granted him a way to everything" (Qur'an, 18:84). Everywhere he went, he brought people happiness, justice, and security. In addition, he made God's religion supreme throughout his realm. Muslims should do their best to emulate this powerful, decisive, and faithful person. (For more detailed information, see Harun Yahya, Signs of the End Times in Surat al-Kahf [New Delhi; Goodword Books, 2004].)

God sent these guides to inform people of the true path. If believers take these great people's lives and morality as an example, and desire only to win God's good pleasure, they will no doubt attain great success and victory.

Today, one sign after another of Islamic morality's emerging dominance is taking place. All over the world, people are turning toward God in great numbers. The most-read newspapers in the world contain news items about this development, and there are now many thousands of new Muslims. Islamic morality invites all people to peace, compassion, and happiness. As it becomes better known, this movement will surely grow even stronger.

From these developments, we can understand that, God willing, Islamic morality's global dominance may happen quickly under the leadership of a strong nation. Even many Western politicians and strategists have begun to speak of this. Today's centers of conflict and chaos (e.g., the Balkans, Central Asia, the Caucasus, and the Middle East) will, by means of the peace and happiness flowing from Islamic morality, be rescued from the chaos in which they are drowning.

God willing, the twenty-first century will be a blessed time, in which Islamic morality will give direction to the world.

 

THE JINNS IN THE QUR'AN

Previously, we explained that God gave Prophet Solomon (pbuh) great support by putting the jinns under his command. Now, we must consider what we are told in the Qur'an. For example:

And He created the jinns from a fusion of fire. (Qur'an, 55:15)

We created the jinns before out of the fire of a searing wind. (Qur'an, 15:27)

The Qur'an reveals that jinns live in their own societies, have formed communities, and that they have ancestors (Qur'an, 7:38; 18:50) Although they live in a different dimension, the jinns can see, watch, and listen to people.

A demon of the jinns told Prophet Solomon (pbuh) that he could bring the Queen of Saba's throne before he got up from his seat and said "I am strong and trustworthy enough to do it" (Qur'an, 27:39). These words may be alluding to the fact that he could move with great speed from one place to another and transport material objects.

God tells us why the jinns were created: "I only created jinn and man to worship Me" (Qur'an, 51:56). Just like humanity, they are warned by Messengers and divinely revealed Books, are tested in this world, worship and obey God, and will receive a reward from God. The Qur'an states:

O company of jinn and humanity. Did not Messengers come to you from among yourselves relating My Signs to you and warning you of the encounter of this Day of yours? They will say: "We testify against ourselves." The life of this world deluded them, and they will testify against themselves that they were unbelievers. (Qur'an, 6:130)

As the verse says, the jinns experience much the same testing as humanity does. Some of them are deceived by the world's temporary delights and ignore or reject the warning that they should follow the true path. The jinns, who can hear the Messengers' words and the Qur'an's recitation, and who can tell their own people what they have learned, listened to the words of Prophet Muhammad (may God bless him and grant him peace):

And We diverted a group of jinns toward you to listen to the Qur'an. When they were in earshot of it, they said: "Be quiet and listen." When it was over, they went back to their people and warned them. They said: "Our people, we have heard a Book that was sent down after Moses, confirming what came before it, guiding to the truth and to a straight path." (Qur'an, 46:29-30)

In several verses, God speaks to the jinns and human beings at the same time, advises them, and warns them against the pains of Hell. In Qur'an 7:38, God decrees: "Enter the Fire together with the nations of jinn and humanity who have passed away before you." Those jinn and human communities who deny the Qur'an's truth will meet with the following fate:

Say: "If both humanity and the jinns banded together to produce the like of this Qur'an, they could never produce anything like it, even if they backed each other up." (Qur'an, 17:88)

Here are some verses in which God addresses jinns and human beings together:

Those are people of whom the statement about the nations, both of jinn and humanity, who passed away before them, has also proved true; truly, they were the lost. (Qur'an, 46:18)

We created many of the jinns and humanity for Hell. They have hearts with which they do not understand. They have eyes with which they do not see. They have ears with which they do not hear. Such people are like cattle. No, they are even further astray! They are the unaware. (Qur'an, 7:179)

Believers and Unbelievers

The Qur'an says that some jinns believe in God and follow His way, while others are godless and rebellious. Muslim jinns listen while the Qur'an is being recited, as the verses below reveal:

Say: "It has been revealed to me that a band of jinns listened and said: 'We have heard a most amazing recitation. It leads to right guidance, so we believe in it and will not associate anyone with our Lord. He-exalted be the Majesty of our Lord!-has neither wife nor son.'" (Qur'an, 72:1-3)

"The fools among us have uttered a vile slander against God. We did not think it possible for either humanity or jinn to tell a lie against God." (Qur'an, 72:4-5)


 

Everything in the heavens and everything on Earth glorifies God. Sovereignty and praise belong to Him. He has power over all things. It is He Who created you. Yet among you are those who do not believe and those who believe. God sees what you do. (Qur'an, 64:1-2)

He created the heavens and Earth with truth and formed you, giving you the best of forms. And He is your final destination. He knows everything in the heavens and Earth. He Knows what you keep secret and what you divulge. God knows what the heart contains.. (Qur'an, 64:3-4)

There are different groups of jinns: sincere Muslims, pagans and polytheists, and those who tell lies about God. Believers are told that:

"Among us [jinns] there are some who are righteous and some who are other than that. We follow many different paths. We realized we would never thwart God on Earth and would never thwart Him by flight, and when we heard the guidance, we believed in it." (Qur'an, 72:11-13)

Like humanity, jinns are responsible for obeying God's book. They will have to account for all they said and did, and will obtain a reward that is completely appropriate to their actions. Believers are told that they will receive a fine reward from God:

"Anyone who believes in his Lord need fear neither belittlement nor tyranny. Some of us are Muslims and some are deviators. Those who have become Muslim are those who sought right guidance." (Qur'an, 72:13-14)

However, those who deny God's existence will meet with the following fate:

"The deviators will be firewood for Hellfire." (Qur'an, 72:15)

"I will fill up Hell with the jinn and humanity all together." (Qur'an, 11:119)

Their Communication with Human Beings

In some cases, certain people may communicate with the jinns and, if God wills, even control them. For example, God placed the jinns under Prophet Solomon's (pbuh) control, and he used them in all kinds of work.

Such communication needs to be analyzed, for today some people, especially young people, try to summon jinns. Even if some people call it calling up the heart or calling up the spirit, it is actually the jinns that are being summoned. In some situations, even if no jinn is actually summoned up, people believe that it is anyway.

Generally, the jinns who answer these summons do not believe in God. Their probable purpose is to make people waste their time in frivolous pursuits. Deceived by these jinns, individuals think that they can gain something from them and learn something about the Unseen. However, without God's permission, the jinns cannot provide any such information. For example, they did not know that Prophet Solomon (pbuh) had died: "When he [Solomon] fell down, it was made clear to the jinns that if they had truly had knowledge of the Unseen, they need not have stayed there suffering humiliating punishment" (Qur'an 34:14) Moreover, it must be remembered that "No one in the heavens and Earth knows the Unseen except God" (Qur'an, 27:65).

Those Who Associate Jinns with God

Some people believe that the jinns have a certain power of their own. However, this is quite wrong, for God created them and only He has real power. Apart from God's will, they cannot harm or benefit anyone. Despite this, some people hope for their assistance and regard them as their guardians:

Yet they make the jinns co-partners with God when He created them! And they attribute sons and daughters to Him without any knowledge. Glory be to Him! He is far above what they describe! (Qur'an, 6:100)


A calligraphic inscription in the jali-thuluth script by Omer Vasfi Efendi of Qur'an 38:50: Gardens of Eden, whose gates will be open to them.

The Qur'an says that some people have been misled after making contact with the jinns:

"Certain men from among humanity used to seek refuge with certain men from among the jinns, but they increased them in wickedness." (Qur'an, 72:6)

In another verse, the Qur'an reveals that some people actually worship the jinns:


Yesarizade (Mustafa Izzet) (1770-1849) 1258 AH. Calligraphy on a blue background. The border is rococo style illuminated in gold with the words: May God give abundant blessing.

They [the angels] will say: "Glory be to You! You are our Protector, not them. No, they were worshipping the jinns. They mostly had faith in them." (Qur'an, 34:41)

A major reason why people associate the jinns with God and hope for their assistance is that they think that these beings know the Unseen. But this is a serious error, for they have no such knowledge (Qur'an, 34:14). The Qur'an says that they cannot guide human beings and may even make broad, yet empty, hints to lead people away from the true path. However, the jinns can influence people only if God wills it, for He created them and they move at His command:

In this way, We have appointed as enemies to every Prophet demons from both humanity and from the jinns, who inspire each other with delusions by means of specious words-if your Lord had willed, they would not have done it, so abandon them and all they fabricate. (Qur'an, 6:112)

Those jinns who lead people astray, as well as those people who associate the jinns with God, will be punished with the eternal pangs of Hell. Those who were deluded by the jinns' alluring words will, in the Hereafter, understand the enormity of their error. On the Day of Judgment, whatever they associated with God will be removed, and they will understand that they are totally alone in His presence. Upon learning that they will have to suffer the pangs of Hell, they will beg:

Those who do not believe say: "Our Lord, show us those jinns and men who misguided us, and we will place them beneath our feet so that they will be among the lowest of the low." (Qur'an, 41:29)

Another verse says that fire will be their endless dwelling place:

On the Day We gather them all together: "O Company of jinns, you gained many followers among humanity." And their friends among Humanity will say: "Our Lord, we benefited from one another, and now we have reached the term that You determined for us." He will say: "The Fire is your home. You will be in it timelessly, forever, except as God wills. Your Lord is All-Wise, All-Knowing." (Qur'an, 6:128)

The Reward of the Rebellious

He will say: "Enter the Fire together with the nations of jinn and humanity who have passed away before you." (Qur'an, 7:38)

The Qur'an reminds us that jinns and human beings are weak creatures that move by God's inspiration. Furthermore, it states that their godless rebellion and denial of His signs will always fail, because God is the Lord of the worlds and Ruler of heaven and Earth:

O Company of jinns and humanity, if you are able to pierce through the confines of the heavens and Earth, pierce through them. You will not pierce through, except by a clear authority. (Qur'an, 55:33)

The reward for those who undertake such an enterprise is described as follows: "He will pursue you with a piercing flame and fiery smoke, and you will not be helped" (Qur'an, 55:35). Muslim jinns are aware of this reality and acknowledge their weakness by saying: "We realized we would never thwart God on Earth and would never thwart Him by flight" (Qur'an, 72:12). In addition, the end of such rebellious is Hell:

When heaven is split apart and goes red like dregs of oil. So which of your Lord's blessings do you both then deny? That Day no person or jinn will be asked about his sin. So which of your Lord's blessings do you both then deny? The evildoers will be recognized by their mark and seized by their forelocks and their feet. So which of your Lord's blessings do you both then deny? This is Hell, which the evildoers deny. (Qur'an, 55:37-43)

Throughout this section, we have described the jinns' characteristics. and have seen that although they have the same responsibilities as people, they are a different kind of creature. Indeed, having power over these very different creatures is a blessing from God given as a reward for strong, deep faith. Prophet Solomon (pbuh) was awarded this blessing from God, Who also showed His mercy by rewarding him with a mighty kingdom.

SATAN

The Qur'an tells us a great deal about Satan and warns us about his wiles. In order to avoid his subtle traps and tricks, we need to analyze this creature.

Satan's Rebellion against God and His Humiliation

After God created Adam, He commanded all of the angels to prostrate before him. And all of them did so except Satan, who claimed that he was superior because he was created from fire while Adam was created from clay:

We created you [Adam], formed you, and then said to the angels: "Prostrate before Adam," and they prostrated-except for Satan. He was not among those who prostrated. We asked: "What prevented you from prostrating when I commanded you to?" He replied: "I am better than him. You created me from fire, and You created him from clay." (Qur'an, 7:11-12)

Satan thought that he would be humiliated if he prostrated before Adam. So, due to his pride and arrogance, he refused to obey God's command. Although he knew that God created and directed everything he became arrogant and claimed that he was better than Prophet Adam (pbuh). This claim was extremely disrespectful; on the one hand, he said he believed in God, and yet, on the other hand, he dared to oppose Him.

In his arrogance, Satan mistakenly thought that he could preserve his pride by refusing to prostrate to Adam. Contrary to what he expected, he was greatly humiliated, embarrassed, and banished. Moreover, throughout human history he would be known as the worst of the worst, a being condemned to the pangs of Hell. And he will always be known as such. The Qur'an describes his banishment from God's presence, as follows:

He said: "Descend from Heaven. It is not for you to be arrogant in it. So get out! You are one of the abased." (Qur'an, 7:13)

He said: "Get out of it, reviled and driven out. As for those of them who follow you, I will fill up Hell with every one of you." (Qur'an, 7:18)

Actually, all arrogant and conceited people fall into this same trap. Satan misleads them into thinking that if they puff themselves up, they will receive respect and honor. But, in fact, they will receive just the opposite. Before all else, in God's sight they will be humiliated because "God does not love anyone vain or boastful" (Qur'an, 4:36). They will also be humiliated among other people, because no one likes an arrogant person. Thus, they have no real friends and are despised by everyone. This humiliation is one of the worst things they experience; but an even greater humiliation will be the pangs of Hell that they will endure along with Satan and his minions.

Satan First Misled Prophet Adam (pbuh) and His Wife

After Satan was driven out of God's presence, he began his struggle that will last until the Day of Judgment. He insinuated himself into people's lives in order to deceive and mislead them. His first big trap was to deceive Prophet Adam (pbuh) and his wife, when they lived in Paradise. The Qur'an tells us of this event, which happened at the beginning of human history:

[God said:] "Adam, live in the Garden, you and your wife, and eat of it wherever you like. But do not go near this tree, lest you become wrongdoers." Then Satan whispered to them, disclosing to them their private parts, which had been concealed from them. He said: "Your Lord has only forbidden you this tree lest you become angels or among those who live forever." He swore to them: "I am one of those who give you good advice." So he enticed them to do it by means of trickery. Then when they tasted the [fruit of the] tree, their private parts were disclosed to them and they started stitching together the leaves of the Garden in order to cover themselves. Their Lord called out to them: "Did I not forbid you this tree and say to you: 'Satan is an outright enemy to you'?" They said: "Our Lord, we have wronged ourselves. If you do not forgive us and have mercy on us, we will be among the lost." He said: "Go down from here as enemies to each other! You will have residence on Earth and enjoyment for a time." He said: "On it you will live and on it you will die, and from it you will be brought forth." (Qur'an, 7:19-25)

This was the beginning of human life in this world, and this was Prophet Adam's (pbuh) state. But he repented, and God forgave him. Satan's struggle against human beings, however, has not ended.

Demons May Appear in Human Form

God tells us that demons may appear in the forms of human beings or jinns so that they can influence people with their words or misleading suggestions, and lead them away from the right path:

Say: "I seek refuge with the Lord of humanity, the King of humanity, the God of humanity, from the evil of the insidious whisperer who whispers in people's breasts and comes from the jinns and from humanity." (Qur'an, 114:1-6)


A panel with the Basmalah (In the name of God, Most Compassionate, Most Merciful) inscribed in the tugra style by Ismail Hakki Altunbezer (from the calligraphy collection of Ekrem Hakki Ayverdi).

Given this, we must be careful of demons who come in other forms. People cannot see Satan, unless God wills otherwise, and he can only influence their minds by means of evil thoughts, fears, and anti-religious ideas. If people realized that such ideas do not come from themselves, but rather from Satan, they would immediately turn to God and think good and edifying thoughts. If they recited various Qur'anic verses, Satan's evil intimations could have no influence on them.

If an evil impulse from Satan provokes you, seek refuge in God. He is All-Hearing, All-Seeing. As for those who guard against evil, when they are bothered by visitors from Satan, they remember and immediately see clearly. (Qur'an, 7:200-201)

Sometimes Satan's minions may appear to us as a friend, an intellectual, or an aggressive individual. These demons resemble human beings in every way and try, through their words and actions, to lead people away from God and arouse their passion for this world.

God says that Satan's army has been trying, since humanity first appeared, to alienate people from the right path. But those who persevere on God's path will be victorious. Satan and his army, on the other hand, will have their reward in Hell:

They will be bundled into it head first, they and the misled, and every one of Satan's regiments. (Qur'an, 26:94-95)

Satan Tries to Make Earthly Life Seem Attractive

After he was driven out of God's presence, Satan blamed human beings for his fallen state and decided to show his resentment by misleading them. But in reality, he was punished for his own amorality, insolence, arrogance, and disobedience. Blinded by his own arrogance, however, Satan did not accept this truth and swore the following oath:

He [Satan] said: "Grant me a reprieve until the day they are raised up." He [God] said: "You are one of the reprieved." He [Satan] said: "By Your misguidance of me, I will lie in ambush for them on your straight path. Then I will come at them, from in front of them and behind them, from their right and from their left. You will not find most of them thankful." (Qur'an, 7:14-17)

One of Satan's main tactics is to use people's own weaknesses to deceive them. For example, Prophet Adam (pbuh) and his wife were deceived with the promise of eternal life. Satan attempts to mislead people by strengthening their attachment to this earthly life, making it seem attractive, desirable, and eternal. The following verse informs us that:

He [Satan] said: "My Lord, because You misled me, I will make things on the Earth seem good to them and I will mislead them all, every one of them." (Qur'an, 15:39)

For example, Satan may put suggestions into a businessman's mind that bind him passionately to his work and lead him to place material gain and financial considerations above everything else. Because of these intimations, the businessman will renounce all moral and spiritual values, reject religion, and deny the Hereafter. So, by exploiting this person's weak points, Satan will alienate him from religion.

God tells us that this is how Satan misled the people of Saba:

[The hoopoe said:] "I found a woman ruling over them who has been given everything. She possesses a mighty throne. I found both her and her people prostrating to the Sun instead of God. Satan has made their actions seem good to them and debarred them from the Way, so they are not guided and do not prostrate to God, Who brings out what is hidden in the heavens and Earth, and knows what you conceal and what you divulge. God-there is no god but Him-the Lord of the Mighty Throne." (Qur'an, 27:23-26)

But we must remember that Satan's tricks and tactics are actually quite weak and that he has no influence over sincere believers who act according to their conscience and keep God and the Qur'an in mind.

Satan Cannot Influence Believers

Satan's sneaky tactics and insinuations cannot influence a believer. All of those with strong belief, as in the case of Prophet Solomon (pbuh), can defeat all of Satan's plans and render him totally ineffective. For believers who always remember God, see the goodness and beauty in His creation, turn toward Him, and look to the Qur'an in everything they think and do, Satan's wiles have no power, since:

He [Satan] has no authority over those who believe and put their trust in their Lord. He only has authority over those who take him as a friend and associate others with God. (Qur'an, 16:99-100)


A panel written in the jali-thuluth script by Mehmet Tahir: "May God be your help."
The border is illuminated with gold.

In another verse, God says that Satan has no coercive power. However, he was given his influence in order to separate the good from the evil:

Satan was correct in his assessment of them and they followed him, except for a group of the believers. He had no authority over them, except to enable Us to know those who believe in the Hereafter from those who are in doubt about it. Your Lord is the Preserver of all things. (Qur'an, 34:20-21)

Satan is not an autonomous creature; he does what he does with God's knowledge. So, He separates those who follow Satan and those godly believers who do not fall into his traps.

Some of Satan's Qualities

He is sneaky and a liar. (Qur'an, 14:22)

He is rebellious. (Qur'an, 22:3)

He only has power to call. (Qur'an, 14:22)

He is arrogant. (Qur'an, 4:117)

His influence on people is filthy. (Qur'an, 8:11)

He wants to prevent people from giving thanks to God. (Qur'an:7:17)

He tries to intimidate people. (Qur'an, 3:175)

He tries to destroy relationships between believers. (Qur'an, 17:53; 5:91)

He tries to persuade people that he gives them good advice. (Qur'an, 7:20-21)

He uses the name of God in the attempt to delude people. (Qur'an, 35:5-6)

He wants believers to become faint-hearted over time. (Qur'an, 3:155)

He breaks his promises. (Qur'an, 14:22)

He tries to make people fall into apprehension and doubt. (Qur'an, 4:119-20)

He shows deviant practices as attractive and desirable. (Qur'an, 27:24)

He tries to threaten people with poverty. (Qur'an, 2:268)

He tries to make people arrogant. (Qur'an, 38:74-75)

He urges people to make a show of praying. (Qur'an, 4:38)

He tries to alienate people from the Qur'an. (Qur'an, 43:36-37)

He makes people forgetful and oblivious. (Qur'an, 58:19; 6:68; 18:63)

He tempts people into emotionalism. (Qur'an, 17:64; 60:1-3)

He makes people get caught up in details. (Qur'an, 2:67-71)

He urges people to be extravagant. (Qur'an, 17:26-27)

The above verses reveal Satan to be a creature who dared to oppose God, is extremely rebellious and harbors great enmity toward human beings, and spares no effort to mislead people from the true path. That Prophet Solomon (pbuh) controlled demons and used them for the advantage of true religion is certainly an indication that he was one of God's greatest servants.


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